Trans and conjugated fatty acids in milk from cows and goats consuming pasture or receiving vegetable oils or seeds
This review summarises the effects of nutritional factors on fat content, different isomers of trans18:1 and conjugated
linoleic acids (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows and goats. Main dietary factors taken into account are the nature of for-
ages and pasture, and supplementation with oil seeds, vegetable or marine oils. The effects of interactions between the
nature of forages and lipid supplements in cows or goats are reviewed with particular attention. Lipid supplements could
highly increase mean trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in ruminant milk fat, and interact with
the quantity of concentrate in the diet or the type of preserved forage. Vegetable or fish oil supplementation increased
milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA up to 4% (in total milk fatty acids (FA)). The content of copper or vitamin E in the diet could
modify the milk percentage of TVA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Other isomers of trans-18:1 (e.g. trans-10) and CLA (e. g.
cis-11, trans-13 or trans-11, trans-13 or trans-7, cis-9 or cis-9, cis-11 CLA) may be manipulated by diet composition.
However, further studies are needed to establish their responses to different feeding strategies. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA
in percentage in milk fat was always lower than 0.15% of total FA. The proportions of different trans-18:1 isomers in
milk fat are similar in caprine and bovine species. Recent studies showed that the CLA content of goat milk fat was sim-
ilar to values (0.4 - 0.9% and up to 4% for winter and lipid-supplemented diets, respectively) observed in the cow.
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the Italian Journal of Animal Science [eISSN 1828-051X] is the official journal of the Animal Science and Production Association and it is published by PAGEPress®, Pavia, Italy. Reg. Pavia, n. 2/2010-INF. All credits and honors to PKP for their OJS.